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cursedth

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1 November, 2013 12:06:00

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First, I'm no expert myself and found out the use of the new elements through experimentation. (so there might be mistakes feel free to correct)
Since I didn't see any updates (yet) from the real electric pros, I decided to make one.

[ANALOG & DIGITAL]
Digital signals, electric outputs range from 0 to 1. Off or On.
Lamps will burn when digital output is 1.
Other devices will only do something when 0 changes to 1 only. This is called the RISING EDGE. 0 to 1
The 0 and 1 can be considered as 0 and 1 volt, although this not entirely correct. (later more on this)

Now with the new elements we have different kinds of Voltages.
From 0.0 volts to 0.1 volts up to 1.5 volts.
Now where can we find these different voltages, what elements are used to create them?
The elements that create these voltages are: DAC, Random-generator.
The Real-time clock can also be used.
And not entirely intended to do the task is the 4-bit counter.
The memory-bank can also be used, programmed to give voltages from 0.0 to 1.5 volts.
And the Battery of course.

Actually any element that produces numbers form 0 to 9 to F can be used for different kinds of voltages.

Number = Voltage/(Digital Value)
0 = 0,0 / (0) low
1 = 0,1 / (0) low
2 = 0,2 / (0) low
3 = 0,3 / (0) low
4 = 0,4 / (0) low
5 = 0,5 / (0) low
6 = 0,6 / (0) low
7 = 0,7 / (0) low
8 = 0,8 / (1) high
9 = 0,9 / (1) high
A (10)= 1,0 / (1) high
B (11) = 1,1 / (1) high
C (12) = 1,2 / (1) high
D (13) = 1,3 / (1) high
E (14) = 1,4 / (1) high
F (15) = 1,5 / (1) high


[other]
Like lamps burn only on 'high' voltages I noticed that this is also true for the pressure-plate and motion detector.
Seeing that their output range is only form 8 to F, the 'high' ranges, would mean that they can't work on 'low' voltages.
As a result the range of a motion detector is only 8 cubes it can measure distance.
And the lightest things on a pressure plate will weight 8, or show 8, but might be lighter. It's just it's minimum.


TIP:
Compared to the digital 0 (off) and 1 (on) signal, anything below 8 is 0 (off) and 8 and above is considered 1 (on) for digital purpose.
So if the numbers are below 8 a lamp will not burn. If the numbers are 8 or higher a lamp will burn and turn off if the value changes from F to 0 or from 8 to 7
Thus some devices will only do something if the number changes from 7 to 8.
A Digital 1(on) is considered to be an Analog 1.5volt and has the value F(15) and not 1.0volt or Value A.
You'll see this if you connect a button to a number display it'll show an F when pressed.


You can also read on Analog signals on the creator's blog: Kaalus'blog Analog signals

Last Edited By: cursedth 7 November, 2013 15:06:29. Edited 7 times

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cursedth

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1 November, 2013 12:11:48

The DAC or Digital to Analog Converter

The DAC has four sides (input) and one back side (output)

The four input sides are used to create the numbers from 0 to 9 to F, by simply summing up values.
On the output side one can connect:
A Colored Segment Display showing you the values.
A Memory Bank. (Later more on this one)
A Sound Generator (Also more on this later)
(or whatever things one can possibly think of I did not??)

All off is 0 or 0,0 volt
The Top-input generates the number 1 or 0,1 Volt.
The Right input generates the number 2 or 0,2 Volt.
The Bottom input generates the number 4 or 0,4 Volt.
The Left input generates the number 8 or 0,8 Volt.

For the number 3 you turn on the Top and Right side, 1+2 = 3 or 0,3 Volt.
For the number 5 you turn on the Top and Bottom side, 1+4 = 5 or 0,5 Volt.
For the number 6 you turn on the Right and Bottom side, 2+4 = 6 or 0,6 Volt.
For 7 turn on Top, Right and Bottom, 1+2+4 = 7 or 0,7 Volt.
8 is only the left side turned on. (starting to get it?)
For 9 turn on Top and Left, 1+8=9 or 0,9 Volt.
For 10 or A turn on Left and Right, 2+8 = 10 is A or 1,0 Volt.
For 11 or B turn on Top, Left and Right, 1+2+8 = 11 is B or 1,1 Volt.
For 12 or C turn on Bottom and Right, 4+8 = 12 is C or 1,2 Volt.
For 13 or D turn on Top, Bottom and Right, 1+4+8= 13 is D or 1,3 Volt.
For 14 or E turn on Left, Bottom and Right 2+4+8 = 14 is E or 1,4 Volt.
For 15 you turn them all on, Top, Left, Bottom and Right, 1+2+4+8= 15 is F or 1,5 Volt.

Note:
The Thruth Table with it's four side inputs, shows a lot of similarities with the DAC elements. See there.
 


Last Edited By: cursedth 1 November, 2013 12:44:26. Edited 2 times.

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1 November, 2013 13:07:01

The Truth Table

Like mentioned with the DAC element the Truth table show a lot of similarities with the DAC and with the ADC, the Analog to Digital Converter.

How are they similar?
It counts values the same way the DAC element counts values. Any Digital-input coming in from the Top is 1, the Right is 2, Bottom is 4 and Left is 8.
For detailed information see the DAC element explanation.

Or another way to put it is:
Input from the top is : 0001
Input from the right is: 0010
Input from the bottom is : 0100
Input form the left is : 1000

So if you'd want it to give a signal when the top and right input are 1(on) check check-box 0011.

Further if you EDIT the Truth table element you'll see sixteen, binary number lines with a check-box.

0000 = 0
0001 = 1
0010 = 2
0011 = 3
0100 = 4
0101 = 5
0110 = 6
0111 = 7
1000 = 8
1001 = 9
1010 = 10 is A
1011 = 11 is B
1100 = 12 is C
1101 = 13 is D
1110 = 14 is E
1111 = 15 is F

So the four Digital input sides together combine all these numbers/values from 0 to 9 to A to F.
And if one or more of these numbers/lines are checked and the Digital-inputs (together) equal one of the checked numbers/lines the Truth Table outputs a Digital 1, also an Analog 1.5volt(F), from it's output side on the back else it outputs a Digital 0. (for analog and digital explanation see the first post in this topic)

You can also read an explanation on the creator's blog: Kaalus' Blog Truth Table

Last Edited By: cursedth 7 November, 2013 14:00:34. Edited 3 times.

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#3 [url]

1 November, 2013 13:24:06

The ADC, Analog to Digital Converter.

For ease of understanding please read DAC element first.

The ADC, Analog to Digital, element breaks up Analog singnals.
It's a nice element to use for AND, OR and the XOR-logic gates, since it gives of 0 to 4 digital outputs, that can be channeled through wires.
It's the complete opposite of the DAC element.
On the back side it receives it's input in analog, 0 to 9 to A to F.
If it would receive input from a button, switch or trapdoor the digital input is received as F or 1,5 volt

So if the input is 1, only the Top side gives an Digital output of 1 (or 1,5 volts), any LED place there would burn
Input is 2, the Right side gives an Digital output of 1 (or 1,5 volts), any LED placed there would burn
Input is 3, the Top and Right sides both give an output of 1 (or 1,5 volts), any LED placed there would burn
And so on....

You can also read a detailed explanation about the ADC on creators' blog : Kaalus' blog ADC

Last Edited By: cursedth 7 November, 2013 13:51:49. Edited 1 time.

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1 November, 2013 13:55:17

The 4-bit-counter

The 4-bit-counter shouldn't be too difficult too understand.

It has four sides and one back side.
The Right side is used to increase, add 1, to the value in the 4-bit-counter. (don't forget, that's where the values are)
The Left side is used to decrease, substract 1, from the value in the 4-bit-counter.
The Back side can be used to set, reset, the value stored in the 4-bit-counter to 0.
The Bottom side only gives a Digital signal when the value of the 4-bit-counter changes from F to 0 when counting up and
should only give a Digital signal when changing from 0 to F counting down.
(But somehow it also does this when changing from F to E while counting down. that's a bug :(  )

-!!!-
The output on the top can be connected to a Number display, but it can also be used to generate Analog signals from 0,0 volts to 1,5(F) volts.
If the top output is connected to an element or device that uses Digital input it will only activate when the number changes from 7(0,7v) to 8(0,8v),
like a digital 0 to 1.
In the case of a lamp connected to the top output the lamp will only burn when the values are 8 or higher. :)
 

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1 November, 2013 14:40:49

The RTC, Real Time Clock

The RTC or Real Time Clock

Is a really nice element since ALL RTC-clocks tick/count at the same time/moment!!
And it can be used for more things then only displaying game time.
One of it's most functional features will probably be with the Memory block. :)

It has 5 sides. Each side counts from 0 to 9 to A to F. (though I'm not entirely sure about the fifth back output side?)
The Top side counts fastest, then the Right side, then the Bottom side, then the Left side and slowest is the fifth backside.

The RTC works as follows.
If the Top side, with 1 dot, counting fastest, reaches F it starts over with 0, when this happens, the Left side, with 2 dots, counts up with +1.
If the side with 2 dots reaches F and counts to 0, the side with 3 dots adds/counts +1 up until this side also reaches F then to 0, so the fourth side adds/counts up with +1 as well, until, not sure, this one also reaches F then to 0 adding +1 to the fifth side.
You can check this by connecting Number displays to each sides and watch what happens.

So there are 16 counts on the side with 1 dot before the side with 2 dots increases with +1.
There are also 16 counts on the side with 2 dots before the side with 3 dots counts up with +1,
that is also 16x16 = 256 counts from the top and right side together before the side with 3 dots counts up with +1.

Note:
The numbers ouputed from the sides of the RTC also count as Voltages ranging from 0,0volt to 1,5volt.
For Digital purposes any values below 8 will be considered 0 and all values of 8 and above will be considered as 1.


Pre on Memory-bank:
Why the RTC works well with Memory blocks.
The memory block has 16x16=256 points to store data/a value
There are 16 vertical and 16 horizontal lines each start with 0.
The Left side of the Memory block determines the horizontal position on a line and the Right side determines the Vertical position of a line.
Much like (X,Y)-coordinates.

If for instance a RTC-element, with it's 1 dotted side, is connected to the Left side of a Memory block it would read the same line from left to right over and over again.
If on the Right side of the Memory-block a RTC-element, with it's 2 dotted side, is connected at the same time the Read-position will always jump one line down vertical after each horizontal read of 16 positions.

You can also read a detailed explanation about the RTC on creators' blog : Kaalus' blog RTC

Last Edited By: cursedth 7 November, 2013 13:54:30. Edited 2 times.

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#6 [url]

1 November, 2013 14:44:11

The Memory Bank

The Memory Bank is a nice piece.
The things you can do with it. :) especially with the Sound Generator!

It has four inputs and one output on the top.


[WRITE]
You can store 16x16 =256 pieces of data or values in it, ranging from 0 to 9 to A to F (0 to 16)
You can either enter/edit them manually or store/add/WRITE them from the back-input side if the bottom recieves a signal between 0.1 to 0.7 volts.

It only WRITEs during a rising edge. Meaning the signal has to change at least once for one WRITE. It's doesn't WRITE continuously if the current on the Bottom input is constant. It either has to vary from 0.1 to 0.7 or from 0 to any value below 0.8 for each separate WRITE.

If the Bottom input receives a signal of 0.1 to 0.7 any value inputted from the back is stored/WRITTEN. If the values inputted in the back are from an electric wire the corresponding value for the Analog-Volts signal from the wire is stored/WRITTEN. 2 if it's 0.2volt. 8 if it's 0.8volt. B if it's 1.1volts, ect.
If the electric wire carries a signal from a button or switch, 1.5volt, then F is stored/WRITTEN.

[WRITE-DATA]
Write-data is supplied from the back input. Use wire-through-block.
Input can be digital 0 or F or Analog.
For determining the write to position within the 16x16 grid see [POSITION]

[READ]
If the Bottom input receives no input, 0 or 0.8volts or higher, then the data/values are READ.
As with WRITING it only read during a Rising Edge. When input goes from 0 to 0.8v or higher.
It will not read if there is a continuous current even if it is in the High-voltages ranges of 0.8v and higher.
Either absolutely nothing should be attached or a on/off current in the High-voltage ranges only.

note: It will also not read when there is for instance a piece of wire with no electric current attached!!

[POSITION]
The Left and Right inputs determine the position where the data value is WRITTEN or READ from, just like (X,Y)-coordinates.
The Left side determines the horizontal position, while the Right side determines the Vertical position in the 16x16 grid.
So you don't just simply connect buttons or switches to the left and right sides, that won't work.
They need numerical values from 0 to 9 to A to F to set the position.

[OUTPUT]
The top is the output of the memory box that only works in READ state.
The values READ can be used as numbers for a Numerical-segment-display, 4-bit-Display or as Voltage outputs ranging from 0 to 0.1 to 1.5(F) Volts.
Where 1 is 0.1volt, 9 is 0.9volt, A is 1.0volt and F is 1.5volt, ect..


There is also an explanation on the creator's blog : Kaalus' Blog The Memory-bank
 

Last Edited By: cursedth 7 November, 2013 14:14:53. Edited 5 times.

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#7 [url]

1 November, 2013 18:08:18

The Sound Generator

[The Sound Generator]

The Sound Generator has four inputs on all sides.


The Top  V , regulates Volume. 0,0Volt for Off/Mute to F(1,5volt) for loudest. In numbers this is from 0 to 9 to A to F
The Left P , regulates the Pitch. Allowing it to play something like DO-RE-MI-FA-SO-LA-TI :), for this it is also a range from 0 to 9 to A to F
The Right O, plays different Octaves, ranging from 0, 1(low), 2(default) and 3(high)  (Thanks to Rioxasimage)
The Bottom T, plays the tones. The number, or voltage, it receives determines what instrument is played. As for as I know there are 7 instruments.
Inputs ranging from 1 (0,1v) to 7 (0,7v) play these instruments.

1 = Bell
2 = Organ
3 = Ping
4 = Guitar or String
5 = Trumpet
6 = Flute
7+ = Piano

Please see here first for the improved connection method: Improved Sound generator connection. (updated: 9-4-2014)

Look at how to make a Jukebox-link-here for examples.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=nqaCT-R0AK0

and

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=M9aDWAq08rA

All video's are by Kaalus
 

Last Edited By: cursedth 9 April, 2014 14:59:17. Edited 8 times.

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#8 [url]

1 November, 2013 20:02:08

The 4-LEDS

The 4-LEDS display work in a similar way as the DAC and the ADC-elements.
When they receive an analog input LED light up accordingly

The Upper-Left LED = 1 or 0,1volt
The Upper-Right LED =2 or 0,2volt
The Lower-Left LED = 4 or 0,4volt
The Lower-Right LED = 8 or 0,8volt

By adding up the Values of the burning LEDS you can tell the value or volts the 4-LEDS display is receiving.

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#9 [url]

2 November, 2013 14:16:23

Playing around with the NOT-gate

So later I started playing around with the NOT-gate and what it would do with the Analog signals.

[CONVERSION]
Before 1.23 a NOT-gate would receive only Digital signals 0 (off) or 1 (on) and change it to it's opposite. 0 -->1 and 1--> 0.

But Analog signals aren't simply 0 or 1. They range from 0.0,  0.1,  0.2, ...., 0.9, 1.0(A), .....1.5(F) volts.
If an Analog signal (volt) passes a NOT-gate the volt that comes out from the other end is 1.5 minus passing-volts-through-NOT-gate.

An easier way to say is in values/numbers.
If a 4-bit-counter has a 9 as output, and you run this through a NOT-gate the outcome is 15(F) - 9 = 6 ( is also 1.5v - 0.9v = 0.6v )
Or... the sum of what goes in and leaves a NOT-gate is always 15(F) and is also 1.5v.


[NOT-gate and RTC]
Ever connected a NOT-gate to a RTC. :)
Place a RTC and connect Number-Displays to it, but also put NOT-gates between. (make sure the NOT-gates point to the display)
This is how you can make a RTC countdown.
 

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#10 [url]

3 November, 2013 15:51:02

Delay-Loop and SR-latch-Auto-Loop-starter for the SoundGenerator

[Delay Loops]
Another way than a RTC to make the SoundGenerator play from Memory-banks is using a Delay-loop connected to 4-Bit-Counters.
Here I'll explain how to make continuous Delay-Loop.

See 'Jukebox' in this forum for 2 scworld-files using both techniques with a 'brief' explanation
image
The Delay-Loop is a simple curcuit in a Loop with at least one Delay-Gate.
The number of Delay-gates and position of the Delay-gates determine the speed of the signal going through the Loop.
Also watch the direction the Delay-gates are pointing, else the Loop won't work.
See ingame description for Delay-gates on how they work.
There is one 'But' to the Delay-Loop, and that is the button press. If the button is pressed more then once it may mess up the Loop.
The Loop will only work when it gives off a Rising Edge. That's a CHANGE of the current from 0(off) to 1(on) only. Not from 1 to 0.
It will change from 1 to 0 and then to 1 to 0 to 1 to 0 ect.. But it only works on the change from 0 to 1. That's called the Rising Edge.

This is what might happen when the button is pressed to many times.
_ is 0, underscore line is Zero
- is 1, line is One.

> ____-____ > 
Imagine the two arrows connecting. The right side connects to the left side, creating a Loop. This is the situation with one button press.

>__-___-___>
 This is a Loop with the button pressed twice. it has two, higher lines, the 1(on) thus two rising edges. This one still works.

>_----_-__-_ >
With this one the button is pressed multiple times and is already looking messy. There are 3 Rising Edges and one long 1(on) signal.

>--------------- >
With this one the button is pressed so many times that it has no Rising Edges any more only one long 1(on) signal. It will not work as Loop.

To reset or turn of a Loop simply just turn one Delay-gate until it's back to it's original position.


[SR-Latch Auto-Loop-Starter]
If you want your loop-circuit already running when the game is loaded and don't want to press (each) button every time you start the game.
This little setup will do the task for you.
image
Place this where you would place your button. The top wire connects to the loop.
When the game starts the NOT-gate turn on the SR-Latch and moment after the same current delayed by the Delay-gate turn it off again.
This make the SR-Latch give of one short pulse/signal starting the loop much like a manual button press would.


Cursedth - -d
 


Last Edited By: cursedth 3 November, 2013 16:12:58. Edited 1 time.

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#11 [url]

4 November, 2013 09:10:45

The Motion Detector.

The motion detector is a simple device that keeps track of movement and distance.
It has a range of 8 cubes. F, E, D, C, B, A, 9, 8
When you stand closest it will display an F and at the farthest range an 8.
If you find this confusing, you can put a NOT-gate between the motion detector and a Number Display, pointing towards the Display.
Then the values will change to 0 when closest and 7 when far. Which will give a more logic/natural output.*


*see [analog and digital] top of page.

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